Final exam

General remarks on the final exam:

Studying Biochemistry ends with a final examination (5 credits). Requirements of taking part on the final exam are the successful completion of all requirements of both Biochemistry 1. and 2. courses and completion of Chemistry 2. exam.

The grade of the final exam on Biochemisty will be evaluated based on four partial grades as follows:

  • Practical course grade: determined based on the sum of the points completed on the practicals and midterm of Biochemistry 2. as follows:

 

51 – 55 points:    excellent (5)

45 – 50 points:    good (4)

40 – 44 points:    medium (3)

33 – 39 points:    satisfactory (2)

 

  • Grade of the Written part of the exam
  • Oral exam: grades given for the two topics

 

The grade of the final exam will be determined by the examiner based on the 4 partial grades (practical course grade, grade of the written part of the exam, grades given for the two topics of the oral exam). The grade of the final exam is not calculated automatically as a mean of the partial grades.

Written part of the exam:

In the winter exam period at least 4 dates will be provided for the written part of the exam. The dates will be determined after consultation with the students and will be announced during the semester. At least two dates will be offered in the autumn and the spring semester for inactive students and in the May/June and August/September exam periods as well. Altogether 4 chances are given for inactive students to try the written part of the exam during an inactive year.

Registration for the written part of the exam is possible only via the Neptun system. After registration for the exam the student can modify or delete the date in the Neptun system until the working day before exam till 10.00 a.m.

The following topics will be included in the written part of the exam:

  • Millieu enterieur, general factors of homeostasis. Isovolemia, isotonia, isoionia, isohydria. Buffer systems.
  • Structure of the biological membranes. Transports across the biological membranes.
  • Classification and structure of proteinogenic amino acids.
  • General characteristics of proteins.
  • Peptide bond. Structure of proteins. Denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Classification of proteins. Collagen, elastin, keratin.
  • Characterization of enzymes. Mechanism of enzyme action. Reversibility of enzymatic reactions.
  • The velocity of enzymatic reactions and factors influencing it. Regulation of enzyme activities. Zymogens, isoenzymes. Nomenclature, classification and cellular localization of enzymes.
  • Structure of nucleotides. Structure and function of DNA.
  • Replication of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutations, repair mechanisms.
  • Transcription and its regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Influence on gene expression. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.
  • Structure of the ribosomes. Activation of amino acids. Initiation, elongation and termination of the translation. Posttranslational modifications and transport of proteins.
  • Theoretical background of recombinant DNA technology.
  • Chemistry of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, homo- and heteropolysaccharides).
  • Biochemical role and structure of lipids.
  • Biochemistry of glycerol phosphatides and sphingolipids.

 

In addition to the listed topics the main chemical structures will be also asked in the written part of the exam. For the structure list, see the webpage of the Division.

The structure of the written part of the exam:

  1. Simple choice: 40 points (1 point/question)
  2. Chemical structures: recognize structures: 10 structures, 10 points (1 point each)

The rules of the written part of the exam are the same as the rules of the midterm. Students have 75 minutes to work on it. The written part of the exam is accepted if the student completes 60% (30 points) of the maximal scores (50 points). The results of the written part of the exam will be found on the homepage of the Division. and on the billboard at the entrance of the building not later then the first working day after the exam. The written part of the exam is on display in a limited interval. The date and time of display are announced with results. No further possibility is given to see the tests.

Evaluation of the written part of the exam:

  • – 50 points: excellent (5)

40 – 44 points:     good (4)

35 – 39 points:     medium (3)

30 – 34 points:     satisfactory (2)

0 – 29 points:       unsatisfactory (1)

 

The student can register for the oral exam if the written part of the exam is succeeded. If the written part of the exam is failed or the student does not appear on the exam (after valid registration), the student misses one chance for the written part of the exam and he/she can register for a next date in the exam period. Every failed written part of the exam reduces the number of chances for the written part of the exam. In one exam period the student has the following number of chances: 3 chances in the May/June exam period and 2 additional chances in the August/September exam period, to complete the written part of the exam. If the student cannot take part on the exam in the May/June exam period due to any reasons, the 3 chances for this exam period are lost, and only 2 chances are remaining for the August/September exam period.

The grade of a successful written part of the exam can be included in the final grade in any of the following exam periods. If the student passed the written part of the exam, it is possible to retake it once on a next date, but in this case the final grade will be evaluated based on the grade of the retake of the written exam. Retake of a successful written exam does not reduce the number of chance for the written part of the exam. After successful oral exam, the written part of the exam cannot be repeated.

Students exempted from Biochemistry 1. are exempted from the written part of the exam.

Oral exam:

The oral exam can be completed only after a successful written part of the exam, not earlier than the second working day after the written part (there has to be at least one working day between the written and oral exams). After consultation with the students, certain exam dates will be provided by the Division for oral exams. Registration for the oral exam is possible only in the Neptun system.

The oral exams start at 8.00 a.m. on the announced exam days. No tools can be used on the oral exam. The oral exam can be completed only if the student has the “black book” with him/her. The examinees draw one paper sheet with two topics. The students have at least 30 min. to prepare. Then the examinee reports orally about his/her competence regarding the given topics. The goal of the exam is not only to check the lexical knowledge, but to make sure that the student understands the interrelationships between certain topics and he/she can apply his/her knowledge in the future studies as well. Hence, the knowledge of the student can be checked with further questions concerning all topics of Biochemistry 2. and 1. as well (also for students exempted from Biochemistry 1; therefore, it is advised to visit the Biochemistry 1. lectures as well).

Students, attending additional exam “Biochemistry of ruminants and vitamins”, can be also asked concerning topics closely related to ruminants and vitamins, such as the basics of the intermediary metabolism and composition of macromolecules. Therefore, it is advised for these students to visit all the lectures of Veterinary Biochemistry 1. and 2.

If the grade of any oral topics is “unsatisfactory (1)”, the final grade will be “unsatisfactory (1)” independently of the other partial grades. In this case the student has to retake only the oral exam, the result of the written part and the practical course grade will be included in the final grade of the next exam as well.

In one exam period the student has the following number of chances: 3 chances in the May/June exam period and 2 additional chances in the August/September exam period, to complete the oral exam. If the student cannot take part on the exam in the May/June exam period due to any reasons, the 3 chances for this exam period are lost, and only 2 chances are remaining for the August/September exam period. Unsuccessful oral exam can be retaken not earlier than the third day following the unsuccessful exam. If the oral exam is succeeded, there is an opportunity to try to improve the final grade once if the student retakes the oral exam.

Topic list of the oral exam:

Topic group I.:

  1. Oxidative degradation of fuel molecules.

Biochemistry of high energy phosphate compounds.

Structure, biochemical function.

Metabolism of creatine.

Structure, synthesis, biochemical function.

Thioester bond.

  1. Glycogenesis,

Steps, location, importance.

Regulation, signal pathways of glucagon/adrenaline and insulin.

  1. Glycolysis.

Steps, types, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

The Pasteur effect and Cori cycle.

  1. Gluconeogenesis.

Steps, entry of different substrates, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

  1. Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl~CoA.

Steps, necessary cofactors, importance.

Glycerol phosphate shuttle.

  1. Citric acid cycle.

Steps, location, regulation, energy balance, importance.

  1. Respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation.

Structure, steps, location, energy balance, importance.

P/O proportion, uncoupling factors.

  1. The pentose phosphate pathway.

Steps of oxidative and non-oxidative phase, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Blood sugar level and its regulation.

Physiological values of blood sugar level. Hormonal regulation of blood sugar level, intracellular regulatory mechanisms, signaling pathways. Transporters of glucose circulation.

  1. Metabolism of fructose and galactose.

Synthesis and degradation of fructose. Synthesis of galactose, its entry in the synthesis of lactose and mucopolysaccharides, galactolysis.

Biochemistry of milk production.

The components of milk. Synthesis of lactose, milk proteins and milk fat.

  1. Oxidative deamination of amino acids.

Oxidative deamination of L- and D-amino acids.

Fate of the nitrogen-free carbon chain of amino acids.

Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.

Transamination of amino acids.

Transamination reactions in general, AST, ALT. Production of Schiff-base and the mechanism of transamination.

  1. Essential and non-essential amino acids.

Decarboxylation of amino acids. Biogenic amines and their degradation.

Biochemistry of glutathione, gamma-glutamyl cycle. Carnosine and anserine.

  1. Detoxification of ammonia.

Urea cycle (steps, location, regulation, energy balance, importance).

Alternative detoxification pathways.

  1. Synthesis and degradation of purine nucleotides.

De novo synthesis, degradation, resynthesis, metabolism of deoxyribonucleotides.

  1. Synthesis and degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides.

De novo synthesis, degradation, resynthesis, metabolism of deoxyribonucleotides.

  1. Structure and biochemical role of haemoglobin.

Synthesis of haemoglobin.

Steps, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Degradation of porphyrines.

Myoglobin, cytochromes, catalase, peroxidase.

Iron metabolism.

  1. Absorbtion and circulation of lipids in the organism.

Lipolysis.

Steps, location, regulation, importance.

Lipogenesis.

      Steps, location, regulation, importance.

  1. Degradation of fatty acids: beta-oxidation.

Transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. Steps of beta-oxidation of fatty acids with even carbon atoms. Location, regulation, energy balance, importance. Specificities of beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with odd carbon atoms.

  1. Synthesis of fatty acids.

Transport of acetyl~CoA to the cytoplasm. Steps of synthesis of fatty acids with even carbon atoms. Location, regulation, importance. Specificities of synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with odd carbon atoms.

  1. Ketogenesis, ketolysis.

Steps, location, energy balance, importance. Biochemical function of ketone bodies.

  1. Biochemistry of

Structure, synthesis (steps, location, regulation, importance) and biochemical function of cholesterol.

Biochemistry of bile acids.

Synthesis, circulation and biochemical function of bile acids.

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism of ruminants.

Degradation of carbohydrates in the rumen, production, absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in the organism.

 

  1. Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds in ruminants.

Production and absorption of ammonia in the rumen. NPN agents, bypass proteins. Bacterial protein production in the rumen. Ruminohepatic nitrogen-circulation.

  1. Biochemical background of ketosis in ruminants.

Connection between gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. Development and features of ketosis.

Lipid metabolism in ruminants.

Synthesis and degradation of lipids in the rumen. Characteristics of lipid metabolism of ruminants.

  1. Central role of the liver in the intermediary metabolism.

Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds.

Secretion activity of the liver.

  1. Detoxification activity of the liver.

Different detoxification processes: synthesis, hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, conjugation.

Operation of cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

  1. Biochemistry of the muscles.

Mechanism of muscle contraction.

Metabolism of muscles, types of muscle fibres.

Biochemistry of adipose tissue, kidneys and brain.

 

Topic group II.:

  1. Vitamins in general. Antivitamins. Vitamin antagonists.
  2. Structure and metabolism of β-carotene and derivatives of retinol (vitamin A).
  3. Biochemical role and deficiency of retinol (vitamin A). Toxicity of vitamin A (hypervitaminosis).
  4. Structure and metabolism of calciferol (vitamin D). Conversion of provitamin to calciferol.
  5. Biochemical role and deficiency of calciferol (vitamin D). Toxicity of vitamin D (hypervitaminosis).
  6. Structure, metabolism and deficiency of tocoferol (vitamin E).
  7. Biochemical role of tocoferol (vitamin E). Oxidative stress, free radicals, antioxidants.
  8. Structure and metabolism of phylloquinon (vitamin K).
  9. Biochemical role and deficiency of phylloquinon (vitamin K).
  10. Biochemistry of essential fatty acids.
  11. Structure and metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  12. Biochemical role and deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1).
  13. Structure and metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B2).
  14. Biochemical role and deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B2).
  15. Structure and metabolism of niacinamide (vitamin B3).
  16. Biochemical role and deficiency of niacinamide (vitamin B3).
  17. Structure and metabolism of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), synthesis of HS~CoA.
  18. Biochemical role and deficiency of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).
  19. Structure and metabolism of pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
  20. Biochemical role and deficiency of pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
  21. Structure, metabolism, biochemical role and deficiency of biotine (vitamin H).
  22. Structure and metabolism of folic acid (vitamin B9).
  23. Biochemical role and deficiency of folic acid (vitamin B9).
  24. Structure and metabolism of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  25. Biochemical role and deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  26. Structure, synthesis and metabolism of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
  27. Biochemical role and deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
  28. Biochemistry of lipotropic factors (choline, inositol).